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Why JSONP is still Mandatory

At Algolia, we are convinced that search queries need to be sent directly from the browser (or mobile app) to the search-engine in order to have a realtime search experience. This is why we have developed a search backend that replies within a few milliseconds through an API that handles security when called from the browser.

Cross domain requests

For security reasons, the default behavior of a web browser is to block all queries that are going to a domain that is different from the website they are sent from. So when using an external HTTP-based search API, all your queries should be blocked because they are sent to an external domain. There are two methods to call an external API from the browser:


The JSONP approach is a workaround that consists of calling an external API  with a DOM <script>  tag. The <script> tag is allowed to load content from any domains without security restrictions. The targeted API needs to expose a HTTP GET endpoint and return Javascript code instead of the regular JSON data. You can use this jQuery code to dynamically call a JSONP URL:

$.getJSON( "http://api.algolia.io/1/indexes/users?query=test", function( data ) { .... }

In order to retrieve the API answer from the newly included JavaScript code, jQuery automatically appends a callback argument to your URL (for example &callback=method12 ) which must be called by the JavaScript code that your API generates.

This is what a regular JSON reply would look like: 

  "results": [ ...]

Instead, the JSONP-compliant API generates:

method12({"results": [ ...]});

Cross Origin Resource Sharing

CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) is the proper approach to perform a call to an external domain. If the remote API is CORS-compliant, you can use a regular XMLHttpRequest  JavaScript object to perform the API call. In practice the browser will first perform an HTTP OPTIONS request to the remote API to check which caller domains are allowed and if it is authorized to execute the requested URL.

For example here is a CORS request issued by a browser. The most important lines are the last two headers that specify which permissions are checked. In this case, the method is POST and the three specific HTTP headers that are requested.

OPTIONS http://latency.algolia.io/1/indexes/*/queries
> Host: latency.algolia.io
> Origin: http://demos.algolia.com
> Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch
> Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.8,fr;q=0.6
> User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_9_2)
> Accept: */*
> Referer: http://demos.algolia.com/eventbrite/
> Connection: keep-alive
> Access-Control-Request-Headers: x-algolia-api-key, x-algolia-application-id, content-type
> Access-Control-Request-Method: POST

The server reply will be similar to this one:

< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Server: nginx/1.6.0
< Date: Tue, 13 May 2014 08:33:55 GMT
< Content-Type: text/plain
< Content-Length: 0
< Connection: keep-alive
< Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *
< Access-Control-Allow-Methods: GET, PUT, DELETE, POST, OPTIONS
< Access-Control-Allow-Headers: x-algolia-api-key, x-algolia-application-id, content-type
< Access-Control-Allow-Credentials: false < Expires: Wed, 14 May 2014 08:33:55 GMT
< Cache-Control: max-age=86400
< Access-Control-Max-Age: 86400

This answer indicates that this POST method can be called from any domain (Access-Control-Allow-Origin: * ) and with the requested headers.

CORS has many advantages. First, it allows access to a real REST API with all HTTP verbs (mainly GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) and it also allows to better handle errors in an API (bad requests, object not found, …). The major drawback is that it is only supported by modern browsers (Internet Explorer ≥ 10, Firefox ≥ 3.5, Chrome ≥ 3, Safari ≥ 4 & Opera ≥ 12; Internet Explorer 8 & 9 provides partial support via theXDomainRequest  object).

Our initial conclusion

Because of the advantages of CORS in terms of error handling, we started with a CORS implementation of our API. We also added a specific support for Internet Explorer 8 & 9 using the  XDomainRequest  JavaScript object (they do not support XMLHttpRequest). The main difference is that XDomainRequest  does not support HTTP headers so we added another way to specify user credentials in the body of the POST request (it was initially only supported via HTTP headers).

We were confident that we were supporting almost all browsers with this implementation, as only very old browsers could cause problems. But we were wrong!

CORS problems

The reality is that CORS still causes problems, even with modern browsers. The biggest problem we have found was with some firewalls/proxies that refuse HTTP OPTIONS queries. We even found software on some computers that were blocking CORS requests, as the Cisco AnyConnect VPN client, which is widely used in the enterprise world. We have found this issue when a TechCrunch employee was not able to operate search on crunchbase.com because the AnyConnect VPN client was installed on his laptop.

Even in 2014 with a large majority of browsers supporting CORS, it is not possible to have perfect service quality with a CORS-enabled REST API!

The solution

Using JSONP is the only solution to ensure great compatibility with old browsers and handle problems with a misconfigured firewall/proxy. However, CORS offers the advantage of proper error-handling, so we do not want to limit ourselves to JSONP.

In the latest version of our JavaScript client, we decided to use CORS with a fallback on JSONP. At client initialization time, we check if the browser supports CORS and then perform an OPTIONS query to check that there is no firewall/proxy that blocks CORS requests. If there is any error we fallback on JSONP. All this logic is available in our JavaScript client without any API/code change for our customers.

Having CORS support with automatic fallback on JSONP is the best way we have found to ensure great service quality and to support all corner case scenarios. If you see any other way to do it, your feedback is very welcome.

  • tomasdev

    Uhm… JSONP won’t allow to send Authorization headers or even set cookies. That looks like a bigger problem than VPNs…

    • This is why we have implemented JSONP as a fallback, we just believe it is still not possible today to have just a CORS implementation.
      For the Authorization headers, we send them as a GET arguments in case of JSONP fallback.

      • tomasdev

        What about setting cookies ? I guess POST could be a faked _method parameter

        • Salman Abbas

          What’s stopping you from setting cookies in response to a JSONP request?

          • tomasdev

            Since it’s in a different domain / protocol it won’t affect the site, same happens with XHR requests without `.withCredentials = true` – doesn’t it?

  • sq

    Why not use SSL? Proxies can’t interfere then.

    • Assaf

      IE won’t let you access HTTPS resource from an HTTP page.

      • Yes there is some browser that block the query when there is a protocol mismatch. Our API is fully exposed in HTTPS and only search queries are available in HTTP in order to support all browsers.

  • whatupderek

    For browsers that don’t support CORS we fallback to our server as a proxy. Not an exact one to one solution since we are no longer requesting directly from the client and a server is necessary, but it was a simple enough solution for us w/o having to support JSONP requests.

    var API_HOST = ‘https://api.diy.org’;

    if (!CORS) API_HOST = ‘https://diy.org/api/`; // transparent api proxy

    • Yes this is a good option if installing a proxy is not a real problem.

      In our case the JSONP fallback is a kind of proxy and has the big advantage to do not require anything on the servers of our users.

  • jtsoi

    Depending on your use case, you can proxy via an iframe. That is what we do. Has much better browser support. (postMessage is required http://caniuse.com/#feat=x-doc-messaging) If you can live without IE7 & IE6.

    • In this case this is not really an API 🙂 In our case we cannot do that since we distribute a realtime API that you can use directly in JS to embed search results in your page.

  • laurencerowe

    The preflight OPTIONS request is not required for simple GET/POST based CORS usage, see: http://www.html5rocks.com/en/tutorials/cors/#toc-types-of-cors-requests

    I suspect your custom headers are triggering the preflight OPTIONS request. Switching these to query parameters should allow you to make CORS requests even when OPTIONS is blocked without falling back to JSONP.

    • I will check, I am not sure all browsers will ignore the OPTIONS request in this case.

  • Kudos for explaining JSONP in the most effective & concise way.

    I understand where CORS is great (keeping your API restful for the browser client), isn’t it too much overhead in term of RTT: a CORS search has to perform two requests whereas JSONP only needs one request?

    • CORS performs two queries when you have security check to verify (Auth headers in our case) and you can cache this OPTIONS request. So the problem is not really to have two queries but the fact this query can be refused by some VPN/firewall.

  • Conclusion : web applications can’t meet the REST principle because JSONP is a fact standard and CORS isn’t completely supported in browser (except using a proxy)

  • I’m curious, how old was the TechCrunch employee’s AnyConnect installation? I think this issue is similar to the one reported here https://twitter.com/mattvlasach/status/256214425000890368 and could potentially be fixed by now.

    • I don’t know if AnyConnect has fixed the issue. The problem is that AnyConnect binaries are distributed by the organization that use the VP

      As of today you still find a lot of organization that distribute version with the bug (I won’t give any name by a simple search for “Cisco AnyConnect Client for Macintosh” will give you version with the bug.

      • I reached out to Cisco but haven’t heard back. At any rate, a few companies not updating their VPN software doesn’t seem like a good justification for this blog post’s title. Also, an apparent workaround is use https which makes it impossible for AnyConnect to sniff the headers and block OPTIONS preflight requests, which in my opinion solves the problem since all sites should be using https by default anyways.

  • Mike

    Alternate idea: Use SSL, so the firewall, VPN, etc. wouldn’t see the contents and wouldn’t know to block.

  • szahn

    Interesting article, I never realized certain enterprise software actually block CORS requests